Methods to Solve

(back to Competitive Programming Book website)

Dear Visitor,

If you arrive at this page because you are (Google-)searching for hints/solutions for some of these 2.95K+ UVa/Kattis online judge problems and you do not know about "Competitive Programming" text book yet, you may be interested to get one copy where I discuss the required data structure(s) and/or algorithm(s) for those problems :). Alternatively, you can also visit my other tool VisuAlgo (free) for animated explanations of some of those data structure(s) and/or algorithm(s).

If you arrive at this page because of CP3 (published 24 May 2013), please notice that this page contains the most up-to-date version of CPbook problem classification at UVa or uHunt pages (dubbed CP3.19a++, information is up to date as of 15 May 2019). The major update is the inclusion of ~1K+ Kattis online judge problems on top of the ~2K UVa online judge problems (there are some overlap, around 90+, search substring "also available at Kattis" / "also available at UVa" to find such problems).

Also, if you are a Google Chrome and Kattis user, use this nice Kattis Hint Giver created by one of my student Lin Si Jie that integrates this page directly with Kattis problems pages (you may want to occassionally 'Remove from Chrome' and re-'Add to Chrome' to manually sync this Methods to Solve content with the local cache).

Regards,
Dr Steven Halim, NUS ICPC head coach, ICPC Asia Singapore Regional Contest Director, Singapore IOI team leader, IOI 2020 Deputy Chairman.

Btw, browsing these ~3K problems may feel daunting for beginners, so feel free to use the following filters:

  1. NUS CS1010/E/S/CS1101S : (Basic) Programming Methodology level: I/O, Sequence, Selection, Repetition, Control Flow, Function, Easy Problems, 1D/2D Array, Simple Sorting, Binary Search, Basic Math, Basic String
  2. NUS CS2040/C/S : (Basic) Data Structures and Algorithms level: 1D/2D Array/Vector, Sorting, Linked List, Binary Heap, Hash Table, Binary Search Tree, Graph DS, Graph Traversal, SSSP
  3. NUS CS3230 : Design and Analysis of Algorithms level: Sorting (Harder), BF, D&C (+MatPow, Closest Pair), Greedy, DP (+APSP, Combinatorics, DP String), MST (+Union-Find), SSSP (Harder), String Matching, Convex Hull, NP-hard Problems
  4. NUS CS4234 : Optimisation Algorithms level: Complete Search (small instances), DP (esp Pseudo-Polynomial versions), NP-hard Problems, Max Flow, Graph Matching (+Weighted MCBM), Linear Programming
  5. CP3.19a, "Chapter 1 : Introduction" starred problems only or CP3.19a, all Chapter 1 problems
  6. CP3.19a, "Chapter 2 : Data Structures and Libraries" starred problems only or CP3.19a, all Chapter 2 problems
  7. CP3.19a, "Chapter 3 : Problem Solving Paradigms" starred problems only or CP3.19a, all Chapter 3 problems
  8. CP3.19a, "Chapter 4 : Graph" starred problems only or CP3.19a, all Chapter 4 problems
  9. CP3.19a, "Chapter 8 : More Advanced Topics" starred problems only or CP3.19a, all Chapter 8 problems
  10. Only starred problems from all chapters
  11. If no (or wrong) filter is specified, we will list down all problems, including all those uncategorized 'non-starred' problems (for NUS CS3233/ICPC: Competitive Programming level)

Problem Title CP3.19a++
Fetching from uHunt 5.2a, Math Simulation, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 9.jose, Josephus Problem
Fetching from uHunt 9.anag, Anagram
Fetching from uHunt 1.4e, Real Life, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 3.2a, Pre-calculate-able
Fetching from uHunt 3.3c, Other DnC Problems
Fetching from uHunt 9.roma, Roman Numerals
Fetching from uHunt 3.2g, Try All Possible Answers
Fetching from uHunt 9.anag, Anagram
Fetching from uHunt 4.2d, Topological Sort
Fetching from uHunt 3.2i, Backtracking (Harder)
Fetching from uHunt 7.2f, Quadrilaterals
Fetching from uHunt 6.3b, Cipher, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 3.5e, TSP
Fetching from uHunt 3.2i, Backtracking (Harder)
Fetching from uHunt 3.2e, Iterative (Permutation)
Fetching from uHunt 3.5d, Coin-Change
Fetching from uHunt 4.2g, SCCs
Fetching from uHunt 1.4b, Game (Chess)
Fetching from uHunt 5.2e, Grid
Fetching from uHunt 1.4b, Game (Chess)
Fetching from uHunt 4.2a, Just Graph Traversal
Fetching from uHunt 4.8f, Eulerian Graph
Fetching from uHunt 5.5f, Prime Factors Functions
Fetching from uHunt 8.5h, Three Components
Fetching from uHunt 9.inve, Inversion Index
Fetching from uHunt 3.2i, Backtracking (Harder)
Fetching from uHunt 4.4b, SSSP, BFS, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 4.2f, Articulation Points/Bridges
Fetching from uHunt 6.3f, Regular Expression
Fetching from uHunt 5.2j, Fractions
Fetching from uHunt 4.4a, SSSP, BFS, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 5.3c, Bonus: Base Number
Fetching from uHunt 9.roma, Roman Numerals
Fetching from uHunt 5.7a, Cycle Finding
Fetching from uHunt 4.2b, Flood Fill, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 7.3b, Polygon, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 5.4b, Binomial Coefficients
Fetching from uHunt 5.2i, Base Number Variants
Fetching from uHunt 7.2b, Lines
Fetching from uHunt 5.2a, Math Simulation, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 3.2d, Three+ Nested Loops, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 5.3c, Bonus: Base Number
Fetching from uHunt 8.5d, Graph and Other
Fetching from uHunt 6.3d, Iterative Parsing
Fetching from uHunt 9.pala, Palindrome (Checking)
Fetching from uHunt 2.3d, Hash Table (map)
Fetching from uHunt 6.4b, String Matching, 2D Grid
Fetching from uHunt 7.2d, Triangles (Trigonometry)
Fetching from uHunt 4.4a, SSSP, BFS, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 7.2e, Triangles + Circles
Fetching from uHunt 9.knig, Knight Moves
Fetching from uHunt 3.2c, Three+ Nested Loops, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 5.2f, Number Systems/Sequences
Fetching from uHunt 4.8a, Shortest Paths on DAG
Fetching from uHunt 7.2f, Quadrilaterals
Fetching from uHunt 3.5b, LIS
Fetching from uHunt 6.3g, Output Formatting, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 1.4c, Game (Others), Easier
Fetching from uHunt 6.3f, Regular Expression
Fetching from uHunt 5.4a, Fibonacci Numbers
Fetching from uHunt 5.2k, Just Ad Hoc
Fetching from uHunt 2.3b, Direct Addressing Table
Fetching from uHunt 2.2f, Stack
Fetching from uHunt 9.grea, Great Circle Distance
Fetching from uHunt 4.8d, Tree
Fetching from uHunt 8.4a, NP-hard/C, small, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 5.5a, Prime Numbers
Fetching from uHunt 9.brac, Bracket Matching
Fetching from uHunt 6.3b, Cipher, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 4.4e, SSSP, -ve weight
Fetching from uHunt 4.6b, Network Flow, Variants
Fetching from uHunt 4.2b, Flood Fill, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 1.3h, Medium
Fetching from uHunt 5.2i, Base Number Variants
Fetching from uHunt 6.3f, Regular Expression
Fetching from uHunt 1.4g, Time, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 5.5d, Finding Prime Factors
Fetching from uHunt 1.4d, Game (Others), Harder
Fetching from uHunt 7.2a, Points
Fetching from uHunt 9.artg, Art Gallery
Fetching from uHunt 4.4d, SSSP, Dijkstra, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 4.8c, Conversion to DAG
Fetching from uHunt 3.2b, Iterative (Two Nested Loops)
Fetching from uHunt 2.4a, Graph Data Structures
Fetching from uHunt 3.3c, Other DnC Problems
Fetching from uHunt 9.inve, Inversion Index
Fetching from uHunt 5.2b, Math Simulation, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 6.3e, Recursive Parsing
Fetching from uHunt 5.5c, Factorial
Fetching from uHunt 8.4a, NP-hard/C, small, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 7.3a, Polygon, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 1.4e, Real Life, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 3.2f, Iterative (Combination)
Fetching from uHunt 6.3i, String Comparison
Fetching from uHunt 9.asta, A* or IDA*
Fetching from uHunt 9.asta, A* or IDA*
Fetching from uHunt 4.2c, Flood Fill, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 8.2d, State-Space, Dijkstra
Fetching from uHunt 8.3a, DP level 2
Fetching from uHunt 4.8e, Bipartite Graph
Fetching from uHunt 8.3b, DP level 3
Fetching from uHunt 9.brac, Bracket Matching
Fetching from uHunt 3.5d, Coin-Change
Fetching from uHunt 1.4b, Game (Chess)
Fetching from uHunt 5.2g, Log, Exp, Pow
Fetching from uHunt 8.3d, Counting Paths, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 1.4f, Real Life, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 8.2a, Challenging Backtracking
Fetching from uHunt 5.3a, Big Integer, Basic
Fetching from uHunt 8.5a, Bsearch-ans and Others
Fetching from uHunt 3.2g, Try All Possible Answers
Fetching from uHunt 3.2h, Backtracking (Easier)
Fetching from uHunt 3.2c, Three+ Nested Loops, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 6.4b, String Matching, 2D Grid
Fetching from uHunt 6.3b, Cipher, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 3.2a, Pre-calculate-able
Fetching from uHunt 9.roma, Roman Numerals
Fetching from uHunt 5.4a, Fibonacci Numbers
Fetching from uHunt 3.5a, Max 1D/2D Range Sum
Fetching from uHunt 4.6a, Network Flow, Standard
Fetching from uHunt 4.5a, APSP, Standard
Fetching from uHunt 4.8b, Counting Paths, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 5.2j, Fractions
Fetching from uHunt 4.5b, APSP, Variants
Fetching from uHunt 4.2b, Flood Fill, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 4.2d, Topological Sort
Fetching from uHunt 6.3c, Frequency Counting
Fetching from uHunt 4.8c, Conversion to DAG
Fetching from uHunt 6.3h, Output Formatting, Harder
Fetching from uHunt non-starred
Fetching from uHunt 5.2h, Polynomial
Fetching from uHunt 1.4c, Game (Others), Easier
Fetching from uHunt 8.5c, Graph and DP
Fetching from uHunt 2.3e, Balanced BST (set)
Fetching from uHunt 8.4a, NP-hard/C, small, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 5.4c, Catalan Numbers
Fetching from uHunt 4.3b, MST, Variants
Fetching from uHunt 8.5h, Three Components
Fetching from uHunt 9.kuhn, Kuhn Munkres's Algorithm
Fetching from uHunt 3.2f, Iterative (Combination)
Fetching from uHunt 8.2d, State-Space, Dijkstra
Fetching from uHunt 8.2a, Challenging Backtracking
Fetching from uHunt 4.5b, APSP, Variants
Fetching from uHunt 8.2d, State-Space, Dijkstra
Fetching from uHunt 1.4f, Real Life, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 2.2f, Stack
Fetching from uHunt 3.2e, Iterative (Permutation)
Fetching from uHunt 8.5e, Maths and Other
Fetching from uHunt 8.4d, NP-hard/C, special, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 1.4f, Real Life, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 8.5d, Graph and Other
Fetching from uHunt 8.4d, NP-hard/C, special, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 8.4b, NP-hard/C, small, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 8.3e, DP with Bitmask
Fetching from uHunt 4.2c, Flood Fill, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 3.5a, Max 1D/2D Range Sum
Fetching from uHunt 7.3b, Polygon, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 4.4c, SSSP, Dijkstra, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 1.3c, Repetition Only
Fetching from uHunt 8.3b, DP level 3
Fetching from uHunt 9.jose, Josephus Problem
Fetching from uHunt 5.3b, (Prob) Prime Testing
Fetching from uHunt 8.4d, NP-hard/C, special, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 6.5a, DP String, Classic
Fetching from uHunt 3.4a, Greedy (Classical)
Fetching from uHunt 3.5b, LIS
Fetching from uHunt 2.4b, Union-Find Disjoint Sets
Fetching from uHunt 6.3d, Iterative Parsing
Fetching from uHunt 5.3b, (Prob) Prime Testing
Fetching from uHunt 8.3b, DP level 3
Fetching from uHunt 8.4d, NP-hard/C, special, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 3.5c, 0-1 Knapsack
Fetching from uHunt 8.5a, Bsearch-ans and Others
Fetching from uHunt 5.4e, Others, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 5.2a, Math Simulation, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 5.3d, Bonus: Others
Fetching from uHunt 8.3c, DP level 4
Fetching from uHunt 9.palb, Palindrome (Generating)
Fetching from uHunt 4.5a, APSP, Standard
Fetching from uHunt 8.5h, Three Components
Fetching from uHunt 8.3e, DP with Bitmask
Fetching from uHunt 6.6a, Suffix Trie/Tree/Array
Fetching from uHunt 3.2i, Backtracking (Harder)
Fetching from uHunt 4.3b, MST, Variants
Fetching from uHunt 9.artg, Art Gallery
Fetching from uHunt 2.4b, Union-Find Disjoint Sets
Fetching from uHunt 8.4c, NP-hard/C, special, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 7.2c, Circles
Fetching from uHunt 6.4a, String Matching, Standard
Fetching from uHunt 9.artg, Art Gallery
Fetching from uHunt 6.6a, Suffix Trie/Tree/Array
Fetching from uHunt 1.3d, Control Flow
Fetching from uHunt 1.4e, Real Life, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 3.2b, Iterative (Two Nested Loops)
Fetching from uHunt 7.2a, Points
Fetching from uHunt 8.2b, State-Space, BFS, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 6.3g, Output Formatting, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 2.2d, Sorting, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 5.6a, Probability, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 5.5a, Prime Numbers
Fetching from uHunt 9.form, Formulas or Theorems
Fetching from uHunt 3.5f, DP level 1
Fetching from uHunt 4.2e, Bipartite Graph
Fetching from uHunt 7.2c, Circles
Fetching from uHunt 5.4c, Catalan Numbers
Fetching from uHunt 6.3c, Frequency Counting
Fetching from uHunt 6.4b, String Matching, 2D Grid
Fetching from uHunt 9.palb, Palindrome (Generating)
Fetching from uHunt 3.4a, Greedy (Classical)
Fetching from uHunt 5.2e, Grid
Fetching from uHunt 3.4c, Involving Sorting, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 8.2b, State-Space, BFS, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 4.3b, MST, Variants
Fetching from uHunt 4.8f, Eulerian Graph
Fetching from uHunt 5.6b, Probability, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 6.3f, Regular Expression
Fetching from uHunt 1.3a, I/O + Sequence Only
Fetching from uHunt 9.artg, Art Gallery
Fetching from uHunt 5.5i, Extended Euclid
Fetching from uHunt 5.5i, Extended Euclid
Fetching from uHunt 2.2c, Sorting, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 5.8a, Game Theory
Fetching from uHunt 6.3j, Ad Hoc String
Fetching from uHunt 8.3c, DP level 4
Fetching from uHunt 3.2a, Pre-calculate-able
Fetching from uHunt 3.5c, 0-1 Knapsack
Fetching from uHunt 2.3f, Balanced BST (map)
Fetching from uHunt 2.3d, Hash Table (map)
Fetching from uHunt 5.2d, Finding Pattern, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 2.2g, List/Queue/Deque
Fetching from uHunt 5.5h, Modulo Arithmetic
Fetching from uHunt 5.5h, Modulo Arithmetic
Fetching from uHunt 5.5f, Prime Factors Functions
Fetching from uHunt 9.asta, A* or IDA*
Fetching from uHunt 5.2e, Grid
Fetching from uHunt 1.4i, Time Waster
Fetching from uHunt 1.4c, Game (Others), Easier
Fetching from uHunt 4.8f, Eulerian Graph
Fetching from uHunt 5.5h, Modulo Arithmetic
Fetching from uHunt 5.4c, Catalan Numbers
Fetching from uHunt 5.9a, Matrix Power
Fetching from uHunt 5.2e, Grid
Fetching from uHunt 5.3b, (Prob) Prime Testing
Fetching from uHunt 5.6a, Probability, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 9.clos, Closest Pair Problem
Fetching from uHunt 7.3b, Polygon, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 2.2d, Sorting, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 4.8a, Shortest Paths on DAG
Fetching from uHunt 2.3b, Direct Addressing Table
Fetching from uHunt 7.2b, Lines
Fetching from uHunt 2.2e, Bit Manipulation
Fetching from uHunt 5.2h, Polynomial
Fetching from uHunt 8.2d, State-Space, Dijkstra
Fetching from uHunt 3.2a, Pre-calculate-able
Fetching from uHunt 1.4b, Game (Chess)
Fetching from uHunt 4.8a, Shortest Paths on DAG
Fetching from uHunt 5.2h, Polynomial
Fetching from uHunt 5.4c, Catalan Numbers
Fetching from uHunt 5.4a, Fibonacci Numbers
Fetching from uHunt 3.4d, Non Classical, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 4.5b, APSP, Variants
Fetching from uHunt 3.2h, Backtracking (Easier)
Fetching from uHunt 5.2a, Math Simulation, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 4.8a, Shortest Paths on DAG
Fetching from uHunt 4.5a, APSP, Standard
Fetching from uHunt 4.4d, SSSP, Dijkstra, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 9.tern, Ternary Search
Fetching from uHunt 1.4a, Game (Card)
Fetching from uHunt 6.3j, Ad Hoc String
Fetching from uHunt 6.5a, DP String, Classic
Fetching from uHunt 5.5b, GCD and/or LCM
Fetching from uHunt 5.2f, Number Systems/Sequences
Fetching from uHunt 1.3e, Function
Fetching from uHunt 9.knig, Knight Moves
Fetching from uHunt 7.2c, Circles
Fetching from uHunt 3.5d, Coin-Change
Fetching from uHunt 4.4e, SSSP, -ve weight
Fetching from uHunt 4.3b, MST, Variants
Fetching from uHunt 9.knig, Knight Moves
Fetching from uHunt 5.5h, Modulo Arithmetic
Fetching from uHunt 5.6a, Probability, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 6.3g, Output Formatting, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 4.2e, Bipartite Graph
Fetching from uHunt 5.3a, Big Integer, Basic
Fetching from uHunt 8.5b, Other and DP 1D RSQ/RMQ
Fetching from uHunt 3.5b, LIS
Fetching from uHunt 8.5e, Maths and Other
Fetching from uHunt 5.4b, Binomial Coefficients
Fetching from uHunt 4.8b, Counting Paths, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 8.3c, DP level 4
Fetching from uHunt 3.3a, Binary Search
Fetching from uHunt 8.4b, NP-hard/C, small, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 3.2h, Backtracking (Easier)
Fetching from uHunt 7.2e, Triangles + Circles
Fetching from uHunt 5.2h, Polynomial
Fetching from uHunt 4.8f, Eulerian Graph
Fetching from uHunt 2.4b, Union-Find Disjoint Sets
Fetching from uHunt 5.5i, Extended Euclid
Fetching from uHunt 8.5e, Maths and Other
Fetching from uHunt 8.3b, DP level 3
Fetching from uHunt 1.4a, Game (Card)
Fetching from uHunt 5.6b, Probability, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 5.5a, Prime Numbers
Fetching from uHunt 4.4a, SSSP, BFS, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 5.9a, Matrix Power
Fetching from uHunt 3.4d, Non Classical, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 3.2d, Three+ Nested Loops, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 5.5i, Extended Euclid
Fetching from uHunt 7.2c, Circles
Fetching from uHunt 5.5e, Prime Factors Related
Fetching from uHunt 3.5a, Max 1D/2D Range Sum
Fetching from uHunt 2.4b, Union-Find Disjoint Sets
Fetching from uHunt 5.4a, Fibonacci Numbers
Fetching from uHunt 5.5g, Modified Sieve
Fetching from uHunt 9.kuhn, Kuhn Munkres's Algorithm
Fetching from uHunt 5.2c, Finding Pattern, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 3.5a, Max 1D/2D Range Sum
Fetching from uHunt 4.2f, Articulation Points/Bridges
Fetching from uHunt 9.jose, Josephus Problem
Fetching from uHunt 5.4e, Others, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 6.3h, Output Formatting, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 4.8d, Tree
Fetching from uHunt 1.4d, Game (Others), Harder
Fetching from uHunt 5.3d, Bonus: Others
Fetching from uHunt 2.3e, Balanced BST (set)
Fetching from uHunt 3.4e, Non Classical, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 9.pala, Palindrome (Checking)
Fetching from uHunt 6.3a, Cipher, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 6.3e, Recursive Parsing
Fetching from uHunt 8.4c, NP-hard/C, special, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 2.3c, Hash Table (set)
Fetching from uHunt 9.kuhn, Kuhn Munkres's Algorithm
Fetching from uHunt 8.5b, Other and DP 1D RSQ/RMQ
Fetching from uHunt 2.4a, Graph Data Structures
Fetching from uHunt 9.grea, Great Circle Distance
Fetching from uHunt 6.3d, Iterative Parsing
Fetching from uHunt 3.2g, Try All Possible Answers
Fetching from uHunt 8.3e, DP with Bitmask
Fetching from uHunt 3.5f, DP level 1
Fetching from uHunt 4.8c, Conversion to DAG
Fetching from uHunt 5.5j, Other Number Theory
Fetching from uHunt 5.3a, Big Integer, Basic
Fetching from uHunt 7.2a, Points
Fetching from uHunt 5.5j, Other Number Theory
Fetching from uHunt 5.2i, Base Number Variants
Fetching from uHunt 9.eggd, Egg Dropping Puzzle
Fetching from uHunt 8.5c, Graph and DP
Fetching from uHunt 9.lowe, Lowest Common Ancestor
Fetching from uHunt 5.2c, Finding Pattern, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 1.4h, Time, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 8.5a, Bsearch-ans and Others
Fetching from uHunt 4.4c, SSSP, Dijkstra, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 4.5b, APSP, Variants
Fetching from uHunt 5.5g, Modified Sieve
Fetching from uHunt 8.5f, Geometry and Other
Fetching from uHunt 1.4d, Game (Others), Harder
Fetching from uHunt 8.5b, Other and DP 1D RSQ/RMQ
Fetching from uHunt 5.7a, Cycle Finding
Fetching from uHunt 5.2d, Finding Pattern, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 1.3c, Repetition Only
Fetching from uHunt 6.3i, String Comparison
Fetching from uHunt 5.7a, Cycle Finding
Fetching from uHunt 6.3i, String Comparison
Fetching from uHunt 3.3a, Binary Search
Fetching from uHunt 4.2d, Topological Sort
Fetching from uHunt 5.4e, Others, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 6.3e, Recursive Parsing
Fetching from uHunt 5.5c, Factorial
Fetching from uHunt 4.2e, Bipartite Graph
Fetching from uHunt 8.4b, NP-hard/C, small, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 7.3a, Polygon, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 8.5b, Other and DP 1D RSQ/RMQ
Fetching from uHunt 9.brac, Bracket Matching
Fetching from uHunt 5.2i, Base Number Variants
Fetching from uHunt 8.3d, Counting Paths, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 5.2b, Math Simulation, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 2.3e, Balanced BST (set)
Fetching from uHunt 4.8e, Bipartite Graph
Fetching from uHunt 3.3c, Other DnC Problems
Fetching from uHunt 9.asta, A* or IDA*
Fetching from uHunt 4.6a, Network Flow, Standard
Fetching from uHunt 1.3b, Selection Only
Fetching from uHunt 5.6b, Probability, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 5.6a, Probability, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 8.2c, State-Space, BFS, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 6.3c, Frequency Counting
Fetching from uHunt 8.2c, State-Space, BFS, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 8.5f, Geometry and Other
Fetching from uHunt 4.3a, MST, Standard
Fetching from uHunt 5.2d, Finding Pattern, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 3.2d, Three+ Nested Loops, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 5.2k, Just Ad Hoc
Fetching from uHunt 5.2b, Math Simulation, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 6.5b, DP String, Non Classic
Fetching from uHunt 3.5d, Coin-Change
Fetching from uHunt 3.4a, Greedy (Classical)
Fetching from uHunt 7.3b, Polygon, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 6.3a, Cipher, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 1.4f, Real Life, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 4.4e, SSSP, -ve weight
Fetching from uHunt 7.2e, Triangles + Circles
Fetching from uHunt 6.4b, String Matching, 2D Grid
Fetching from uHunt 5.3b, (Prob) Prime Testing
Fetching from uHunt 8.5h, Three Components
Fetching from uHunt 6.3e, Recursive Parsing
Fetching from uHunt 2.3f, Balanced BST (map)
Fetching from uHunt 5.4d, Others, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 5.8a, Game Theory
Fetching from uHunt 8.5c, Graph and DP
Fetching from uHunt 7.2d, Triangles (Trigonometry)
Fetching from uHunt 8.2c, State-Space, BFS, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 8.5c, Graph and DP
Fetching from uHunt 1.3e, Function
Fetching from uHunt 2.3b, Direct Addressing Table
Fetching from uHunt 5.5j, Other Number Theory
Fetching from uHunt 5.5e, Prime Factors Related
Fetching from uHunt 9.jose, Josephus Problem
Fetching from uHunt 4.4b, SSSP, BFS, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 5.5f, Prime Factors Functions
Fetching from uHunt 1.4g, Time, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 8.4c, NP-hard/C, special, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 6.5b, DP String, Non Classic
Fetching from uHunt 3.4b, Involving Sorting, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 5.5j, Other Number Theory
Fetching from uHunt 8.3d, Counting Paths, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 9.clos, Closest Pair Problem
Fetching from uHunt 6.3b, Cipher, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 5.5b, GCD and/or LCM
Fetching from uHunt 5.5e, Prime Factors Related
Fetching from uHunt 4.2e, Bipartite Graph
Fetching from uHunt 5.4d, Others, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 2.4c, Tree-related DS
Fetching from uHunt 6.3h, Output Formatting, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 9.palb, Palindrome (Generating)
Fetching from uHunt 5.5b, GCD and/or LCM
Fetching from uHunt 4.6a, Network Flow, Standard
Fetching from uHunt 3.5f, DP level 1
Fetching from uHunt 2.4c, Tree-related DS
Fetching from uHunt 5.5g, Modified Sieve
Fetching from uHunt 8.3d, Counting Paths, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 7.3a, Polygon, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 8.2a, Challenging Backtracking
Fetching from uHunt 1.4c, Game (Others), Easier
Fetching from uHunt 4.5a, APSP, Standard
Fetching from uHunt 5.5d, Finding Prime Factors
Fetching from uHunt 7.3a, Polygon, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 8.5g, Efficient DS and Other
Fetching from uHunt 6.3j, Ad Hoc String
Fetching from uHunt 5.8a, Game Theory
Fetching from uHunt 5.2b, Math Simulation, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 3.4e, Non Classical, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 9.inve, Inversion Index
Fetching from uHunt 1.3h, Medium
Fetching from uHunt 5.7a, Cycle Finding
Fetching from uHunt 6.6a, Suffix Trie/Tree/Array
Fetching from uHunt 8.2b, State-Space, BFS, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 3.4d, Non Classical, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 8.5g, Efficient DS and Other
Fetching from uHunt 5.2k, Just Ad Hoc
Fetching from uHunt 5.4e, Others, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 1.3c, Repetition Only
Fetching from uHunt 2.4a, Graph Data Structures
Fetching from uHunt 6.5b, DP String, Non Classic
Fetching from uHunt 9.kuhn, Kuhn Munkres's Algorithm
Fetching from uHunt 1.3g, Still Easy
Fetching from uHunt 3.5c, 0-1 Knapsack
Fetching from uHunt 4.8b, Counting Paths, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 8.5f, Geometry and Other
Fetching from uHunt 2.2b, 2D Array Manipulation
Fetching from uHunt 5.9a, Matrix Power
Fetching from uHunt 3.4e, Non Classical, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 9.pala, Palindrome (Checking)
Fetching from uHunt 4.2c, Flood Fill, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 5.4d, Others, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 3.3a, Binary Search
Fetching from uHunt 5.6b, Probability, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 2.3d, Hash Table (map)
Fetching from uHunt 4.3a, MST, Standard
Fetching from uHunt 5.2g, Log, Exp, Pow
Fetching from uHunt 1.4i, Time Waster
Fetching from uHunt 9.knig, Knight Moves
Fetching from uHunt 3.2f, Iterative (Combination)
Fetching from uHunt 1.4a, Game (Card)
Fetching from uHunt 1.3g, Still Easy
Fetching from uHunt 1.3e, Function
Fetching from uHunt 4.8d, Tree
Fetching from uHunt 8.2a, Challenging Backtracking
Fetching from uHunt 4.2g, SCCs
Fetching from uHunt 5.2d, Finding Pattern, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 9.form, Formulas or Theorems
Fetching from uHunt 5.5f, Prime Factors Functions
Fetching from uHunt 3.4b, Involving Sorting, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 8.5d, Graph and Other
Fetching from uHunt 6.3i, String Comparison
Fetching from uHunt 3.2e, Iterative (Permutation)
Fetching from uHunt 4.3a, MST, Standard
Fetching from uHunt 5.5a, Prime Numbers
Fetching from uHunt 4.6b, Network Flow, Variants
Fetching from uHunt 1.3d, Control Flow
Fetching from uHunt 4.6b, Network Flow, Variants
Fetching from uHunt 4.2g, SCCs
Fetching from uHunt 7.2b, Lines
Fetching from uHunt 1.3g, Still Easy
Fetching from uHunt 3.5b, LIS
Fetching from uHunt 4.4b, SSSP, BFS, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 3.5e, TSP
Fetching from uHunt 1.3f, Easy
Fetching from uHunt 7.2f, Quadrilaterals
Fetching from uHunt 3.2d, Three+ Nested Loops, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 9.grea, Great Circle Distance
Fetching from uHunt 5.3d, Bonus: Others
Fetching from uHunt 8.3e, DP with Bitmask
Fetching from uHunt 5.5b, GCD and/or LCM
Fetching from uHunt 3.5c, 0-1 Knapsack
Fetching from uHunt 6.4a, String Matching, Standard
Fetching from uHunt 4.2g, SCCs
Fetching from uHunt 4.2c, Flood Fill, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 5.2g, Log, Exp, Pow
Fetching from uHunt 6.3d, Iterative Parsing
Fetching from uHunt 5.3a, Big Integer, Basic
Fetching from uHunt 9.pala, Palindrome (Checking)
Fetching from uHunt 3.4e, Non Classical, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 7.2a, Points
Fetching from uHunt 3.4b, Involving Sorting, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 4.2a, Just Graph Traversal
Fetching from uHunt 4.2a, Just Graph Traversal
Fetching from uHunt 7.2d, Triangles (Trigonometry)
Fetching from uHunt 2.2e, Bit Manipulation
Fetching from uHunt 1.4h, Time, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 5.3c, Bonus: Base Number
Fetching from uHunt 4.2b, Flood Fill, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 5.4b, Binomial Coefficients
Fetching from uHunt 4.8b, Counting Paths, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 8.5g, Efficient DS and Other
Fetching from uHunt 8.5g, Efficient DS and Other
Fetching from uHunt 5.2f, Number Systems/Sequences
Fetching from uHunt 2.2g, List/Queue/Deque
Fetching from uHunt 2.4a, Graph Data Structures
Fetching from uHunt 2.3a, Priority Queue
Fetching from uHunt 5.2c, Finding Pattern, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 3.3b, Binary Search the Answer
Fetching from uHunt 5.2k, Just Ad Hoc
Fetching from uHunt 5.5g, Modified Sieve
Fetching from uHunt 4.4d, SSSP, Dijkstra, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 2.3c, Hash Table (set)
Fetching from uHunt 5.2j, Fractions
Fetching from uHunt 1.4i, Time Waster
Fetching from uHunt 2.2g, List/Queue/Deque
Fetching from uHunt 4.6b, Network Flow, Variants
Fetching from uHunt 8.2b, State-Space, BFS, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 1.4g, Time, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 1.4g, Time, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 6.3h, Output Formatting, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 1.3h, Medium
Fetching from uHunt 4.4a, SSSP, BFS, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 3.3b, Binary Search the Answer
Fetching from uHunt 3.3a, Binary Search
Fetching from uHunt 8.5e, Maths and Other
Fetching from uHunt 9.lowe, Lowest Common Ancestor
Fetching from uHunt 1.4a, Game (Card)
Fetching from uHunt 3.2e, Iterative (Permutation)
Fetching from uHunt 1.3b, Selection Only
Fetching from uHunt 7.2f, Quadrilaterals
Fetching from uHunt 1.3d, Control Flow
Fetching from uHunt 1.4i, Time Waster
Fetching from uHunt 2.2b, 2D Array Manipulation
Fetching from uHunt 2.4c, Tree-related DS
Fetching from uHunt 3.4a, Greedy (Classical)
Fetching from uHunt 8.5f, Geometry and Other
Fetching from uHunt 8.3a, DP level 2
Fetching from uHunt 5.5c, Factorial
Fetching from uHunt 2.2a, 1D Array Manipulation
Fetching from uHunt 4.2f, Articulation Points/Bridges
Fetching from uHunt 6.3g, Output Formatting, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 1.3b, Selection Only
Fetching from uHunt 4.8d, Tree
Fetching from uHunt 9.roma, Roman Numerals
Fetching from uHunt 5.2g, Log, Exp, Pow
Fetching from uHunt 4.2a, Just Graph Traversal
Fetching from uHunt 8.2c, State-Space, BFS, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 8.4a, NP-hard/C, small, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 5.4d, Others, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 6.4a, String Matching, Standard
Fetching from uHunt 1.3a, I/O + Sequence Only
Fetching from uHunt 3.4d, Non Classical, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 3.2b, Iterative (Two Nested Loops)
Fetching from uHunt 1.3f, Easy
Fetching from uHunt 2.3f, Balanced BST (map)
Fetching from uHunt 2.2c, Sorting, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 2.2e, Bit Manipulation
Fetching from uHunt 1.3g, Still Easy
Fetching from uHunt 9.anag, Anagram
Fetching from uHunt 1.3h, Medium
Fetching from uHunt 4.8e, Bipartite Graph
Fetching from uHunt 2.3b, Direct Addressing Table
Fetching from uHunt 2.2a, 1D Array Manipulation
Fetching from uHunt 2.2b, 2D Array Manipulation
Fetching from uHunt 4.8e, Bipartite Graph
Fetching from uHunt 3.4c, Involving Sorting, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 3.2f, Iterative (Combination)
Fetching from uHunt 1.3f, Easy
Fetching from uHunt 5.5d, Finding Prime Factors
Fetching from uHunt 2.2c, Sorting, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 5.4b, Binomial Coefficients
Fetching from uHunt 9.palb, Palindrome (Generating)
Fetching from uHunt 2.2e, Bit Manipulation
Fetching from uHunt 6.5a, DP String, Classic
Fetching from uHunt 9.anag, Anagram
Fetching from uHunt 4.2f, Articulation Points/Bridges
Fetching from uHunt 9.form, Formulas or Theorems
Fetching from uHunt 3.3b, Binary Search the Answer
Fetching from uHunt 5.9a, Matrix Power
Fetching from uHunt 8.5d, Graph and Other
Fetching from uHunt 5.5d, Finding Prime Factors
Fetching from uHunt 6.3c, Frequency Counting
Fetching from uHunt 1.4h, Time, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 4.4b, SSSP, BFS, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 3.4c, Involving Sorting, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 3.2h, Backtracking (Easier)
Fetching from uHunt 3.5e, TSP
Fetching from uHunt 3.2c, Three+ Nested Loops, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 8.3a, DP level 2
Fetching from uHunt 5.5c, Factorial
Fetching from uHunt 4.6a, Network Flow, Standard
Fetching from uHunt 4.8c, Conversion to DAG
Fetching from uHunt 3.3c, Other DnC Problems
Fetching from uHunt 6.3a, Cipher, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 3.2c, Three+ Nested Loops, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 8.4b, NP-hard/C, small, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 6.3j, Ad Hoc String
Fetching from uHunt 5.2c, Finding Pattern, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 5.3d, Bonus: Others
Fetching from uHunt 4.4d, SSSP, Dijkstra, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 8.3a, DP level 2
Fetching from uHunt 2.2d, Sorting, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 1.3a, I/O + Sequence Only
Fetching from uHunt 2.3e, Balanced BST (set)
Fetching from uHunt 3.4c, Involving Sorting, Harder
Fetching from uHunt 2.2f, Stack
Fetching from uHunt 9.form, Formulas or Theorems
Fetching from uHunt 3.4b, Involving Sorting, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 8.4c, NP-hard/C, special, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 7.2b, Lines
Fetching from uHunt 4.4c, SSSP, Dijkstra, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 3.5f, DP level 1
Fetching from uHunt 3.3b, Binary Search the Answer
Fetching from uHunt 6.3a, Cipher, Easier
Fetching from uHunt 6.5a, DP String, Classic
Fetching from uHunt 2.3c, Hash Table (set)
Fetching from uHunt 2.3a, Priority Queue
Fetching from uHunt 2.2a, 1D Array Manipulation
Fetching from uHunt 2.3a, Priority Queue
Fetching from uHunt 9.inve, Inversion Index
Fetching from uHunt 7.2e, Triangles + Circles
Kattis - 2048 2.2b, 2D Array Manipulation
Kattis - 4thought 3.2a, Pre-calculate-able
Kattis - a1paper 3.3c, Other DnC Problems
Kattis - abinitio 2.4a, Graph Data Structures
Kattis - acm 1.3d, Control Flow
Kattis - acm2 3.4b, Involving Sorting, Easier
Kattis - ada 5.2h, Polynomial
Kattis - adjoin 4.8d, Tree
Kattis - administrativeproblems 2.3f, Balanced BST (map)
Kattis - airconditioned 3.4c, Involving Sorting, Harder
Kattis - airlinehub 9.grea, Great Circle Distance
Kattis - aliennumbers 5.2i, Base Number Variants
Kattis - allaboutthatbase 5.3c, Bonus: Base Number
Kattis - alldifferentdirections 7.2d, Triangles (Trigonometry)
Kattis - allpairspath 4.5a, APSP, Standard
Kattis - almostperfect 5.5f, Prime Factors Functions
Kattis - almostunionfind 2.4b, Union-Find Disjoint Sets
Kattis - anagramcounting 5.4e, Others, Harder
Kattis - anewalphabet 6.3a, Cipher, Easier
Kattis - animal 8.5g, Efficient DS and Other
Kattis - anothercandies 5.5h, Modulo Arithmetic
Kattis - anti11 5.4a, Fibonacci Numbers
Kattis - ants 3.4d, Non Classical, Easier
Kattis - apaxiaaans 6.3f, Regular Expression
Kattis - aqueducts 9.kuhn, Kuhn Munkres's Algorithm
Kattis - arbitrage 4.5b, APSP, Variants
Kattis - arithmetic 5.2i, Base Number Variants
Kattis - armystrengthhard 1.3f, Easy
Kattis - artichoke 1.3e, Function
Kattis - asciifigurerotation 6.3h, Output Formatting, Harder
Kattis - aspenavenue 8.3b, DP level 3
Kattis - autori 6.3d, Iterative Parsing
Kattis - averageshard 5.2c, Finding Pattern, Easier
Kattis - avoidingtheapocalypse 4.6b, Network Flow, Variants
Kattis - bachetsgame 5.8a, Game Theory
Kattis - ballotboxes 2.3a, Priority Queue
Kattis - baloni 2.2a, 1D Array Manipulation
Kattis - bank 3.4d, Non Classical, Easier
Kattis - basicinterpreter 2.3d, Hash Table (map)
Kattis - basicremains 5.3c, Bonus: Base Number
Kattis - batmanacci 5.4a, Fibonacci Numbers
Kattis - batteries 9.eggd, Egg Dropping Puzzle
Kattis - batterup 1.3f, Easy
Kattis - battleship 1.4d, Game (Others), Harder
Kattis - battlesimulation 1.3h, Medium
Kattis - beanbag 8.4b, NP-hard/C, small, Harder
Kattis - beavergnaw 9.3dge, 3D Geometry
Kattis - beehives 8.5f, Geometry and Other
Kattis - beehouseperimeter 5.2e, Grid
Kattis - beepers 3.5e, TSP
Kattis - bela 1.4a, Game (Card)
Kattis - biggest 7.2c, Circles
Kattis - bigtruck 8.2d, State-Space, Dijkstra
Kattis - bilateral 8.4c, NP-hard/C, special, Easier
Kattis - billiard 7.2d, Triangles (Trigonometry)
Kattis - birds 3.4c, Involving Sorting, Harder
Kattis - birthday 4.2f, Articulation Points/Bridges
Kattis - bishops 5.2c, Finding Pattern, Easier
Kattis - bitbybit 2.2e, Bit Manipulation
Kattis - bitsequalizer 1.3h, Medium
Kattis - blockcrusher 4.4d, SSSP, Dijkstra, Harder
Kattis - blockgame2 5.8a, Game Theory
Kattis - bobby 5.6b, Probability, Harder
Kattis - boggle 6.4b, String Matching, 2D Grid
Kattis - bookclub 4.8e, Bipartite Graph
Kattis - bookingaroom 2.3b, Direct Addressing Table
Kattis - bossbattle 1.3g, Still Easy
Kattis - bottles 9.3dge, 3D Geometry
Kattis - bread 9.inve, Inversion Index
Kattis - breakingbad 4.2e, Bipartite Graph
Kattis - brexit 4.2d, Topological Sort
Kattis - browniepoints 7.2a, Points
Kattis - bst 2.3e, Balanced BST (set)
Kattis - builddeps 4.2d, Topological Sort
Kattis - bumped 8.2d, State-Space, Dijkstra
Kattis - busnumbers2 8.5g, Efficient DS and Other
Kattis - bustour 3.5e, TSP
Kattis - busyschedule 1.4h, Time, Harder
Kattis - buttonbashing 4.4a, SSSP, BFS, Easier
Kattis - buzzwords 6.6a, Suffix Trie/Tree/Array
Kattis - calculatingdartscores 3.2d, Three+ Nested Loops, Harder
Kattis - calculator 6.3e, Recursive Parsing
Kattis - candlebox 5.2f, Number Systems/Sequences
Kattis - candydistribution 5.5i, Extended Euclid
Kattis - candydivision 2.3e, Balanced BST (set)
Kattis - canonical 3.5d, Coin-Change
Kattis - cantinaofbabel 4.2g, SCCs
Kattis - cantor 9.tern, Ternary Search
Kattis - cardmagic 4.8c, Conversion to DAG
Kattis - cardtrick2 3.2a, Pre-calculate-able
Kattis - carrots 1.3a, I/O + Sequence Only
Kattis - catalan 5.4c, Catalan Numbers
Kattis - catalansquare 5.4c, Catalan Numbers
Kattis - catenyms 4.8f, Eulerian Graph
Kattis - cats 4.3a, MST, Standard
Kattis - caveexploration 4.2f, Articulation Points/Bridges
Kattis - cd 2.3c, Hash Table (set)
Kattis - ceiling 3.3c, Other DnC Problems
Kattis - centsavings 8.5b, Other and DP 1D RSQ/RMQ
Kattis - character 5.4d, Others, Easier
Kattis - charlesincharge 8.5a, Bsearch-ans and Others
Kattis - checkingforcorrectness 5.9a, Matrix Power
Kattis - chess 1.4b, Game (Chess)
Kattis - chewbacca 9.lowe, Lowest Common Ancestor
Kattis - chopin 1.4e, Real Life, Easier
Kattis - chopwood 2.4a, Graph Data Structures
Kattis - classrooms 3.4a, Greedy (Classical)
Kattis - classy 2.2d, Sorting, Harder
Kattis - closestpair1 9.clos, Closest Pair Problem
Kattis - closestsums 3.2b, Iterative (Two Nested Loops)
Kattis - coast 4.2c, Flood Fill, Harder
Kattis - coke 8.3c, DP level 4
Kattis - cokolada 5.2g, Log, Exp, Pow
Kattis - collatz 5.2f, Number Systems/Sequences
Kattis - coloring 8.4b, NP-hard/C, small, Harder
Kattis - combinationlock 1.3e, Function
Kattis - commercials 3.5a, Max 1D/2D Range Sum
Kattis - committeeassignment 8.2a, Challenging Backtracking
Kattis - communication 3.2g, Try All Possible Answers
Kattis - compass 1.4e, Real Life, Easier
Kattis - compoundwords 2.3e, Balanced BST (set)
Kattis - conformity 2.3d, Hash Table (map)
Kattis - connectthedots 1.4c, Game (Others), Easier
Kattis - consecutivesums 5.5e, Prime Factors Related
Kattis - conservation 4.2d, Topological Sort
Kattis - control 2.4b, Union-Find Disjoint Sets
Kattis - conundrum 6.3a, Cipher, Easier
Kattis - convex 7.3b, Polygon, Harder
Kattis - convexhull 7.3a, Polygon, Easier
Kattis - cool1 5.7a, Cycle Finding
Kattis - countcircuits 8.3d, Counting Paths, Harder
Kattis - crackingrsa 5.2b, Math Simulation, Harder
Kattis - creditcard 1.4f, Real Life, Harder
Kattis - crne 5.2c, Finding Pattern, Easier
Kattis - cropeasy 7.2e, Triangles + Circles
Kattis - crosscountry 4.4e, SSSP, -ve weight
Kattis - cudoviste 3.2c, Three+ Nested Loops, Easier
Kattis - cups 2.2c, Sorting, Easier
Kattis - cursethedarkness 7.2a, Points
Kattis - cuttingcorners 7.3a, Polygon, Easier
Kattis - cycleseasy 3.5e, TSP
Kattis - dancerecital 3.2e, Iterative (Permutation)
Kattis - data 5.5g, Modified Sieve
Kattis - deadfraction 5.2j, Fractions
Kattis - deathstar 2.2e, Bit Manipulation
Kattis - delimitersoup 9.brac, Bracket Matching
Kattis - delivery 3.4c, Involving Sorting, Harder
Kattis - destinationunknown 8.2d, State-Space, Dijkstra
Kattis - dicegame 5.6a, Probability, Easier
Kattis - different 1.3b, Selection Only
Kattis - digitsum 5.2d, Finding Pattern, Harder
Kattis - display 6.3g, Output Formatting, Easier
Kattis - divisibility 5.5j, Other Number Theory
Kattis - divisors 5.5f, Prime Factors Functions
Kattis - dobra 3.2i, Backtracking (Harder)
Kattis - dominoes2 4.2b, Flood Fill, Easier
Kattis - dominos 4.2g, SCCs
Kattis - downtime 2.2a, 1D Array Manipulation
Kattis - drinkresponsibly 8.3c, DP level 4
Kattis - dst 1.4h, Time, Harder
Kattis - dunglish 8.5e, Maths and Other
Kattis - dvaput 6.6a, Suffix Trie/Tree/Array
Kattis - dvds 3.4e, Non Classical, Harder
Kattis - dvoniz 8.5b, Other and DP 1D RSQ/RMQ
Kattis - dyslectionary 2.2d, Sorting, Harder
Kattis - easiest 5.2a, Math Simulation, Easier
Kattis - ecoins 8.2b, State-Space, BFS, Easier
Kattis - egypt 7.2d, Triangles (Trigonometry)
Kattis - election 5.4b, Binomial Coefficients
Kattis - elementarymath 4.8e, Bipartite Graph
Kattis - elevatortrouble 8.2b, State-Space, BFS, Easier
Kattis - eligibility 1.3b, Selection Only
Kattis - empleh 1.4b, Game (Chess)
Kattis - emptyingbaltic 4.4d, SSSP, Dijkstra, Harder
Kattis - encodedmessage 6.3a, Cipher, Easier
Kattis - engaging 9.kuhn, Kuhn Munkres's Algorithm
Kattis - enlarginghashtables 5.5a, Prime Numbers
Kattis - enviousexponents 8.5h, Three Components
Kattis - equalsumseasy 8.4a, NP-hard/C, small, Easier
Kattis - equivalences 4.2g, SCCs
Kattis - errands 3.5e, TSP
Kattis - escapeplan 4.8e, Bipartite Graph
Kattis - esej 2.3c, Hash Table (set)
Kattis - espressobucks 9.cons, Construction Problem
Kattis - euclideantsp 9.tern, Ternary Search
Kattis - euclidsgame 5.8a, Game Theory
Kattis - eulerianpath 4.8f, Eulerian Graph
Kattis - europeantrip 8.4c, NP-hard/C, special, Easier
Kattis - evenup 2.2f, Stack
Kattis - everywhere 2.3c, Hash Table (set)
Kattis - exactchange2 3.5d, Coin-Change
Kattis - exam 6.5b, DP String, Non Classic
Kattis - factovisors 5.5e, Prime Factors Related
Kattis - factstone 5.2g, Log, Exp, Pow
Kattis - faktor 1.3a, I/O + Sequence Only
Kattis - falling 5.2b, Math Simulation, Harder
Kattis - farey 5.5g, Modified Sieve
Kattis - fastfood 1.3h, Medium
Kattis - faultyrobot 4.2a, Just Graph Traversal
Kattis - favourable 8.3d, Counting Paths, Harder
Kattis - fenwick 2.4c, Tree-related DS
Kattis - fiat 5.4c, Catalan Numbers
Kattis - fire2 4.4b, SSSP, BFS, Harder
Kattis - firefly 3.3a, Binary Search
Kattis - fizzbuzz 5.5j, Other Number Theory
Kattis - flexible 3.2g, Try All Possible Answers
Kattis - flowergarden 5.3b, (Prob) Prime Testing
Kattis - flowerytrails 4.4c, SSSP, Dijkstra, Easier
Kattis - flowfree 8.4a, NP-hard/C, small, Easier
Kattis - flowshop 2.2b, 2D Array Manipulation
Kattis - font 8.4a, NP-hard/C, small, Easier
Kattis - fraction 5.2j, Fractions
Kattis - freeweights 3.3b, Binary Search the Answer
Kattis - friday 1.4g, Time, Easier
Kattis - froshweek 9.inve, Inversion Index
Kattis - froshweek2 3.4a, Greedy (Classical)
Kattis - fruitbaskets 3.2i, Backtracking (Harder)
Kattis - fundamentalneighbors 5.5e, Prime Factors Related
Kattis - funhouse 2.2b, 2D Array Manipulation
Kattis - gamerank 1.4c, Game (Others), Easier
Kattis - gears2 8.5d, Graph and Other
Kattis - geneticsearch 6.4a, String Matching, Standard
Kattis - geppetto 3.2e, Iterative (Permutation)
Kattis - getshorty 4.4c, SSSP, Dijkstra, Easier
Kattis - gettingthrough 8.5h, Three Components
Kattis - goldbach2 5.3b, (Prob) Prime Testing
Kattis - golombrulers 3.2b, Iterative (Two Nested Loops)
Kattis - goodcoalition 5.6b, Probability, Harder
Kattis - goodmorning 3.2h, Backtracking (Easier)
Kattis - grandpabernie 2.3d, Hash Table (map)
Kattis - grasshopper 9.knig, Knight Moves
Kattis - greetingcard 2.3c, Hash Table (set)
Kattis - grid 4.4a, SSSP, BFS, Easier
Kattis - gridmst 8.5d, Graph and Other
Kattis - grille 6.3b, Cipher, Harder
Kattis - growlinggears 5.2a, Math Simulation, Easier
Kattis - guess 3.3a, Binary Search
Kattis - guessinggame 1.4c, Game (Others), Easier
Kattis - happyprime 5.7a, Cycle Finding
Kattis - hardware 2.3b, Direct Addressing Table
Kattis - hardwoodspecies 2.3f, Balanced BST (map)
Kattis - heliocentric 5.5i, Extended Euclid
Kattis - hello 1.3a, I/O + Sequence Only
Kattis - helpme 1.4b, Game (Chess)
Kattis - heritage 6.5b, DP String, Non Classic
Kattis - hidden 6.3f, Regular Expression
Kattis - hidingchickens 8.3e, DP with Bitmask
Kattis - hidingplaces 9.knig, Knight Moves
Kattis - hillnumbers 6.5b, DP String, Non Classic
Kattis - hissingmicrophone 1.3f, Easy
Kattis - holeynqueensbatman 8.2a, Challenging Backtracking
Kattis - honey 5.4d, Others, Easier
Kattis - honeyheist 5.2e, Grid
Kattis - hoppers 4.2e, Bipartite Graph
Kattis - horror 4.4a, SSSP, BFS, Easier
Kattis - houseofcards 9.form, Formulas or Theorems
Kattis - humancannonball 8.5f, Geometry and Other
Kattis - hurricanedanger 7.2b, Lines
Kattis - ignore 5.2i, Base Number Variants
Kattis - iks 5.5e, Prime Factors Related
Kattis - imperfectgps 7.2a, Points
Kattis - importspaghetti 4.5a, APSP, Standard
Kattis - incognito 5.4e, Others, Harder
Kattis - increasingsubsequence 3.5b, LIS
Kattis - inflagrantedelicto 6.5a, DP String, Classic
Kattis - ingestion 8.3b, DP level 3
Kattis - integerlists 2.2g, List/Queue/Deque
Kattis - intercept 4.2f, Articulation Points/Bridges
Kattis - inversefactorial 5.5c, Factorial
Kattis - irepeatmyself 6.3j, Ad Hoc String
Kattis - islandhopping 4.3a, MST, Standard
Kattis - islands 3.2g, Try All Possible Answers
Kattis - islands3 4.2c, Flood Fill, Harder
Kattis - itsasecret 6.3b, Cipher, Harder
Kattis - jackpot 5.3d, Bonus: Others
Kattis - jailbreak 8.4d, NP-hard/C, special, Harder
Kattis - janitortroubles 9.form, Formulas or Theorems
Kattis - jewelrybox 9.tern, Ternary Search
Kattis - joinstrings 2.2g, List/Queue/Deque
Kattis - jointattack 5.2j, Fractions
Kattis - jollyjumpers 2.2a, 1D Array Manipulation
Kattis - joylessgame 5.8a, Game Theory
Kattis - judgingmoose 1.3b, Selection Only
Kattis - juryjeopardy 6.3h, Output Formatting, Harder
Kattis - justaminute 1.4g, Time, Easier
Kattis - kaleidoscopicpalindromes 9.pala, Palindrome (Checking)
Kattis - karte 1.4a, Game (Card)
Kattis - kastenlauf 4.5b, APSP, Variants
Kattis - kattissquest 2.3f, Balanced BST (map)
Kattis - keyboard 8.2c, State-Space, BFS, Harder
Kattis - kinarow 6.4b, String Matching, 2D Grid
Kattis - kitten 4.8d, Tree
Kattis - knapsack 3.5c, 0-1 Knapsack
Kattis - knightsearch 6.4b, String Matching, 2D Grid
Kattis - knightsfen 9.knig, Knight Moves
Kattis - kolone 6.3j, Ad Hoc String
Kattis - kutevi 8.3a, DP level 2
Kattis - ladice 2.4b, Union-Find Disjoint Sets
Kattis - leftbeehind 1.3b, Selection Only
Kattis - lektira 3.2d, Three+ Nested Loops, Harder
Kattis - licensetolaunch 1.3d, Control Flow
Kattis - lindenmayorsystem 6.3f, Regular Expression
Kattis - lineup 2.2c, Sorting, Easier
Kattis - lockedtreasure 5.4b, Binomial Coefficients
Kattis - logo2 7.2b, Lines
Kattis - longincsubseq 3.5b, LIS
Kattis - lostmap 4.3a, MST, Standard
Kattis - loworderzeros 5.5c, Factorial
Kattis - magicallights 8.5g, Efficient DS and Other
Kattis - mailbox 8.3b, DP level 3
Kattis - mallmania 4.4b, SSSP, BFS, Harder
Kattis - managingpackaging 4.2d, Topological Sort
Kattis - mancala 3.2a, Pre-calculate-able
Kattis - maptiles2 5.2e, Grid
Kattis - marblestree 3.4d, Non Classical, Easier
Kattis - marko 6.3c, Frequency Counting
Kattis - matrix 5.2k, Just Ad Hoc
Kattis - maxflow 4.6a, Network Flow, Standard
Kattis - maximizingwinnings 4.8c, Conversion to DAG
Kattis - maximumrent 9.line, Linear Programming
Kattis - mazemovement 4.6a, Network Flow, Standard
Kattis - megainversions 8.5e, Maths and Other
Kattis - memorymatch 1.4d, Game (Others), Harder
Kattis - mia 1.3e, Function
Kattis - millionairemadness 4.3b, MST, Variants
Kattis - mincut 4.6a, Network Flow, Standard
Kattis - minimumscalar 3.4b, Involving Sorting, Easier
Kattis - minspantree 4.3a, MST, Standard
Kattis - mixedfractions 5.2j, Fractions
Kattis - mjehuric 2.2c, Sorting, Easier
Kattis - modulararithmetic 5.5i, Extended Euclid
Kattis - molekule 4.2e, Bipartite Graph
Kattis - mosquito 1.3c, Repetition Only
Kattis - mountainbiking 7.2d, Triangles (Trigonometry)
Kattis - moviecollection 2.4c, Tree-related DS
Kattis - mravi 4.8a, Shortest Paths on DAG
Kattis - mububa 8.3c, DP level 4
Kattis - muddyhike 4.3b, MST, Variants
Kattis - multigram 9.anag, Anagram
Kattis - musicalnotation 6.3g, Output Formatting, Easier
Kattis - musicyourway 2.2d, Sorting, Harder
Kattis - names 9.palb, Palindrome (Generating)
Kattis - namethatpermutation 5.5c, Factorial
Kattis - narrowartgallery 8.3e, DP with Bitmask
Kattis - natjecanje 3.2h, Backtracking (Easier)
Kattis - naturereserve 4.3b, MST, Variants
Kattis - neighborhoodwatch 5.2d, Finding Pattern, Harder
Kattis - nikola 3.5f, DP level 1
Kattis - nine 5.2d, Finding Pattern, Harder
Kattis - nizovi 6.3h, Output Formatting, Harder
Kattis - nonprimefactors 5.5g, Modified Sieve
Kattis - npuzzle 3.2c, Three+ Nested Loops, Easier
Kattis - ntnuorienteering 8.5c, Graph and DP
Kattis - numbertree 2.3a, Priority Queue
Kattis - oceancurrents 4.4b, SSSP, BFS, Harder
Kattis - oddbinom 5.4b, Binomial Coefficients
Kattis - oddgnome 1.3d, Control Flow
Kattis - odds 5.6a, Probability, Easier
Kattis - officespace 7.2f, Quadrilaterals
Kattis - oktalni 5.3c, Bonus: Base Number
Kattis - onemorebellmanford 4.4e, SSSP, -ve weight
Kattis - onemorecc 3.5d, Coin-Change
Kattis - onemoredagconversion 4.8c, Conversion to DAG
Kattis - ones 5.5h, Modulo Arithmetic
Kattis - ontrack 8.5e, Maths and Other
Kattis - orders 3.5c, 0-1 Knapsack
Kattis - ornaments 7.2c, Circles
Kattis - ostgotska 6.3c, Frequency Counting
Kattis - otpor 6.3e, Recursive Parsing
Kattis - pachinkoprobability 8.3d, Counting Paths, Harder
Kattis - pachydermpeanutpacking 1.4i, Time Waster
Kattis - pagelayout 3.2i, Backtracking (Harder)
Kattis - paintings 3.2h, Backtracking (Easier)
Kattis - pairingsocks 2.2f, Stack
Kattis - palindromesubstring 9.pala, Palindrome (Checking)
Kattis - pandachess 6.5a, DP String, Classic
Kattis - pascal 5.5d, Finding Prime Factors
Kattis - password 5.6b, Probability, Harder
Kattis - peasoup 1.3g, Still Easy
Kattis - pebblesolitaire 8.2a, Challenging Backtracking
Kattis - pebblesolitaire2 8.3e, DP with Bitmask
Kattis - peragrams 9.pala, Palindrome (Checking)
Kattis - perket 3.2f, Iterative (Combination)
Kattis - permutationencryption 6.3b, Cipher, Harder
Kattis - permutedarithmeticsequence 5.2f, Number Systems/Sequences
Kattis - pervasiveheartmonitor 6.3d, Iterative Parsing
Kattis - phonelist 6.3i, String Comparison
Kattis - pivot 2.2a, 1D Array Manipulation
Kattis - planina 5.4d, Others, Easier
Kattis - platforme 7.2b, Lines
Kattis - plot 5.2h, Polynomial
Kattis - pointinpolygon 7.3b, Polygon, Harder
Kattis - pokerhand 1.3f, Easy
Kattis - polymul1 5.2h, Polynomial
Kattis - polymul2 9.fast, Fast Fourier Transform
Kattis - poplava 9.cons, Construction Problem
Kattis - porpoises 5.9a, Matrix Power
Kattis - powereggs 9.eggd, Egg Dropping Puzzle
Kattis - powerstrings 6.4a, String Matching, Standard
Kattis - presidentialelections 3.5c, 0-1 Knapsack
Kattis - primalrepresentation 5.5d, Finding Prime Factors
Kattis - primaryarithmetic 5.3a, Big Integer, Basic
Kattis - primereduction 5.5d, Finding Prime Factors
Kattis - primes2 5.3b, (Prob) Prime Testing
Kattis - primesieve 5.5a, Prime Numbers
Kattis - princeandprincess 6.5a, DP String, Classic
Kattis - printingcosts 1.4i, Time Waster
Kattis - program 8.5b, Other and DP 1D RSQ/RMQ
Kattis - programmingteamselection 8.4b, NP-hard/C, small, Harder
Kattis - programmingtutors 8.5a, Bsearch-ans and Others
Kattis - promotions 4.2a, Just Graph Traversal
Kattis - prozor 3.5a, Max 1D/2D Range Sum
Kattis - prsteni 5.5b, GCD and/or LCM
Kattis - quickbrownfox 2.3b, Direct Addressing Table
Kattis - railroad2 4.8f, Eulerian Graph
Kattis - rationalarithmetic 5.5b, GCD and/or LCM
Kattis - rationalsequence 5.2f, Number Systems/Sequences
Kattis - rats 5.7a, Cycle Finding
Kattis - reachableroads 4.2b, Flood Fill, Easier
Kattis - reactivity 8.4c, NP-hard/C, special, Easier
Kattis - recount 2.3d, Hash Table (map)
Kattis - rectanglesurrounding 7.2f, Quadrilaterals
Kattis - reduction 3.2b, Iterative (Two Nested Loops)
Kattis - relatives 5.5f, Prime Factors Functions
Kattis - repeatingdecimal 5.2b, Math Simulation, Harder
Kattis - reseto 5.5a, Prime Numbers
Kattis - restaurant 2.2f, Stack
Kattis - rhyming 6.3i, String Comparison
Kattis - ridofcoins 8.4d, NP-hard/C, special, Harder
Kattis - rijeci 5.4a, Fibonacci Numbers
Kattis - rimski 9.roma, Roman Numerals
Kattis - rings2 2.2b, 2D Array Manipulation
Kattis - risk 8.5a, Bsearch-ans and Others
Kattis - roberthood 7.3b, Polygon, Harder
Kattis - robotmaze 8.2c, State-Space, BFS, Harder
Kattis - robotprotection 7.3a, Polygon, Easier
Kattis - robotsonagrid 4.8b, Counting Paths, Easier
Kattis - robotturtles 8.2c, State-Space, BFS, Harder
Kattis - rockpaperscissors 1.4d, Game (Others), Harder
Kattis - rollercoasterfun 8.3c, DP level 4
Kattis - romans 1.3a, I/O + Sequence Only
Kattis - roompainting 3.3a, Binary Search
Kattis - roundedbuttons 7.2f, Quadrilaterals
Kattis - runningmom 4.2a, Just Graph Traversal
Kattis - runningsteps 4.8b, Counting Paths, Easier
Kattis - safe 8.2b, State-Space, BFS, Easier
Kattis - safepassage 4.8a, Shortest Paths on DAG
Kattis - savingdaylight 1.4g, Time, Easier
Kattis - savinguniverse 4.8a, Shortest Paths on DAG
Kattis - scenes 4.8b, Counting Paths, Easier
Kattis - scrollingsign 6.4a, String Matching, Standard
Kattis - secretchamber 4.5b, APSP, Variants
Kattis - secretsanta 5.6a, Probability, Easier
Kattis - sellingspatulas 3.5a, Max 1D/2D Range Sum
Kattis - semafori 1.4h, Time, Harder
Kattis - set 3.2c, Three+ Nested Loops, Easier
Kattis - shopaholic 3.4b, Involving Sorting, Easier
Kattis - shortestpath1 4.4c, SSSP, Dijkstra, Easier
Kattis - shortestpath2 4.4c, SSSP, Dijkstra, Easier
Kattis - shortestpath3 4.4e, SSSP, -ve weight
Kattis - shuffling 1.4a, Game (Card)
Kattis - sidewayssorting 2.2c, Sorting, Easier
Kattis - simpleaddition 5.3a, Big Integer, Basic
Kattis - sjecista 9.form, Formulas or Theorems
Kattis - skener 6.3g, Output Formatting, Easier
Kattis - smallestmultiple 5.3d, Bonus: Others
Kattis - smartphone 6.3i, String Comparison
Kattis - snapperhard 2.2e, Bit Manipulation
Kattis - sortofsorting 2.2d, Sorting, Harder
Kattis - speed 3.3b, Binary Search the Answer
Kattis - speedlimit 1.3c, Repetition Only
Kattis - spiderman 3.5f, DP level 1
Kattis - splat 8.5f, Geometry and Other
Kattis - squaredeal 3.2f, Iterative (Combination)
Kattis - squarepegs 3.4a, Greedy (Classical)
Kattis - squawk 5.9a, Matrix Power
Kattis - srednji 2.3f, Balanced BST (map)
Kattis - statistics 1.3d, Control Flow
Kattis - stickysituation 7.2e, Triangles + Circles
Kattis - stockbroker 3.4e, Non Classical, Harder
Kattis - stringfactoring 6.5b, DP String, Non Classic
Kattis - stringmatching 6.4a, String Matching, Standard
Kattis - subexpression 6.3e, Recursive Parsing
Kattis - suffixarrayreconstruction 6.6a, Suffix Trie/Tree/Array
Kattis - suffixsorting 6.6a, Suffix Trie/Tree/Array
Kattis - supercomputer 2.4c, Tree-related DS
Kattis - suspensionbridges 3.3b, Binary Search the Answer
Kattis - sylvester 3.3c, Other DnC Problems
Kattis - tarifa 1.3c, Repetition Only
Kattis - tautology 3.2d, Three+ Nested Loops, Harder
Kattis - temperatureconfusion 5.5b, GCD and/or LCM
Kattis - teque 2.2g, List/Queue/Deque
Kattis - terraces 4.2c, Flood Fill, Harder
Kattis - thebackslashproblem 5.2g, Log, Exp, Pow
Kattis - thekingofthenorth 4.6b, Network Flow, Variants
Kattis - thermostat 5.3d, Bonus: Others
Kattis - thinkingofanumber 5.5j, Other Number Theory
Kattis - threedigits 5.5h, Modulo Arithmetic
Kattis - throwns 2.2f, Stack
Kattis - ticketpricing 3.5f, DP level 1
Kattis - tight 8.3a, DP level 2
Kattis - timebomb 6.3d, Iterative Parsing
Kattis - timeloop 1.3c, Repetition Only
Kattis - timezones 1.4h, Time, Harder
Kattis - toilet 1.4f, Real Life, Harder
Kattis - tourists 4.8d, Tree
Kattis - trainpassengers 1.4e, Real Life, Easier
Kattis - trainsorting 3.5b, LIS
Kattis - transportation 4.6b, Network Flow, Variants
Kattis - transportationplanning 4.5a, APSP, Standard
Kattis - traveltheskies 2.4a, Graph Data Structures
Kattis - treasurediving 8.5c, Graph and DP
Kattis - treasurehunt 1.3e, Function
Kattis - trendingtopic 2.2g, List/Queue/Deque
Kattis - trilemma 7.2e, Triangles + Circles
Kattis - trip 5.2k, Just Ad Hoc
Kattis - tritiling 5.4e, Others, Harder
Kattis - trollhunt 5.2a, Math Simulation, Easier
Kattis - turbo 2.4c, Tree-related DS
Kattis - turtlemaster 1.4d, Game (Others), Harder
Kattis - ultraquicksort 9.inve, Inversion Index
Kattis - veci 3.2e, Iterative (Permutation)
Kattis - vegetables 2.3a, Priority Queue
Kattis - virus 3.4e, Non Classical, Harder
Kattis - visualgo 4.4d, SSSP, Dijkstra, Harder
Kattis - vote 1.3g, Still Easy
Kattis - vuk 8.5d, Graph and Other
Kattis - walkforest 8.5c, Graph and DP
Kattis - walls 3.2g, Try All Possible Answers
Kattis - walrusweights 8.3a, DP level 2
Kattis - watchdog 7.2c, Circles
Kattis - wedding 8.4d, NP-hard/C, special, Harder
Kattis - wertyu 1.4e, Real Life, Easier
Kattis - wheels 8.5h, Three Components
Kattis - wheresmyinternet 4.2b, Flood Fill, Easier
Kattis - whichbase 5.3c, Bonus: Base Number
Kattis - wifi 8.5a, Bsearch-ans and Others
Kattis - windows 1.4i, Time Waster
Kattis - wizardofodds 5.3a, Big Integer, Basic
Kattis - wordcloud 1.4f, Real Life, Harder
Kattis - workstations 2.3a, Priority Queue
Kattis - xyzzy 4.4e, SSSP, -ve weight
Kattis - yoda 5.2k, Just Ad Hoc
Kattis - zagrade 3.2f, Iterative (Combination)
Kattis - zipfslaw 6.3j, Ad Hoc String
Kattis - zoo 6.3c, Frequency Counting